Showing posts with label IT Concepts. Show all posts
Showing posts with label IT Concepts. Show all posts

Wednesday, 8 May 2013

What is application software?


You may also like:-What is System Software?

Application Software are those software which are used for specific purposes example MS Word,spreadsheet etc.

This type of software required more work from user's end.

Now I discuss some example/types/lists of application software in brief:-

1)Microsoft Office Word:-Also called as MS word,it comes under a package of MS office.It helps you to create professional looking documents.It contains reviews,font,page layouts,mailing etc.




2)Microsoft Office Excel:-Also called as MS Excel.It is the power full tool of manage your data with ease.It contains cell,column,rows etc.




3)Microsoft Office PowerPoint:-Also called as MS PowerPoint.It is an another important application software which is used for specific purpose.It is used for creating presentations.It contains ribbons,tabs etc.




4)Microsoft Office Access:-Also called as MS Access.It s used to make process of creating database so easy.




5)Paint(Drawing):-This application software is used to make figures,chart,diagram etc.






That's all about computer/PC application software and categories,if you have any query then leave your comments and don't forgot to follow me on Google+,Facebook,Twitter.

What is system software?


You may also like:-What is Application Software?

System software are those software which are used to coordinate with all the operations of the connected device of the computer system.System software manage computer system and also controlled it.

System software control all major operation of computer system(PC) in which some are:-

1)It control all hardware devices including input  devices,output devices etc.

2)It control all software.

3)It control memory management. 

4)It control process management.

5)It can manage all the files and documents.

6)It is also used in I/O management.

7)It is also used to maintain  jobs on the basis of priorities. 

Type of system software:-

1)Programming language software(First generation ,second generation,third generation,fourth generation,Oops.

2)Operating system(like UNIX,windows,Linux etc.).

3)Utility programs(like addition,subtraction,sorting etc.).

4)Subroutines(Repeated task).

Different-2 environment of system software or Examples:-

1)Single user environment(DOS,Windows)

2)Multi -user environment(Linux,Unix).



If you have any query then leave your comments and don't forgot to follow me on Google+,Facebook,Twitter.

What is computer software?Explain its different types


Software are the set of programs/packages which we can not touch and feel as like hardware(It is device which we can touch and feel).Software provide better communication between computer/PC and user.


Software is the combination of instructions to perform the specific task.

Relation between Software,hardware and user(Diagram):-





Types of Software:- 

1)System Software:-System software are those software which we can used to control the system and also used for run applications.

Example:-DOS,Unix etc.

For more help on System software than visits System software(full link).

2)Application Software:-Application software are those software which are designed to perform a specific task.

Example tally,payroll etc.

For more help on Application Software than visits Application Software(full link).

3)Utility Software:-Utility software are those software which are used by everyone.

Example:-MS Office.

4)Presentation Software:-Presentation Software are those software which are use to create/make computer presentations.

Example PowerPoint.

5)Language Software:-Language software are those software which are used to developed languages code.

Example:-c,c++,HTML5 etc.

If you have any query then leave your comments and don't forgot to follow me on Google+,Facebook,Twitter.

Tuesday, 7 May 2013

What are computer output devices?Explain its different types with examples


In my previous post I discuss about computer input devices and now I am discussing "What are computer output devices?Explain its different types with examples". Output devices are those devices which display the required result or in simple words which display the output of the final result.Output devices provide the output of data/information.

Output devices result are of 2 types:-

1)Soft copy output(Which is present in digital form in a computer).

2)Hard copy output(Which are present in paper form).

Examples of some common output devices:-

1)VDU:-It stands for Visual Display Unit.It may be a screen or a monitor.Monitor is like a TV screen(it can be plasma,LED,LCD).Resolution of monitor depends on the number of pixels per inches.

Monitor display text,images,video,audio,files,
document etc. on the screen.




2)Printer:-Printer is an output device which is used to show result in hard copy form or in paper form.




Type of Printer:-

Printer generally divided into two types namely Impact and non-impact printer.

1)Impact Printer:-In these type of printer hammer strikes against the paper through ribbon.Printing quality of impact printer is not good,it create noise while printing example dot matrix,daisy wheel etc.

2)Non-Impact Printer:-In these type of printer hammer doesn't strikes against the paper through ribbon.Printing quality of impact printer is good,it doesn't create noise while printing example laser printer,ink jet printer.

Plotter:-Plotter is a well known output device which produce high quality graphics in multiple colour.Plotter is used to create maps,charts etc. on a paper sheet.




Some other output devices are terminals,
Voice synthesiser,video adaptor,speech synthesizer,projector etc.



If you have any query then leave your comments and don't forgot to follow me on Google+,Facebook,Twitter.

Monday, 6 May 2013

What are computer input devices?Explain its different types with examples


You may also like:-What are computer output devices?Explain its different types with examples.

Input devices are those devices which takes input from user's in the simple form and convert the data/information into digital form i.e. 1 or 0.

Input device categorisation:-

1)Online input devices/Direct line entry devices:-On line input devices are those devices which are directly connected to computer example keyboard,mouse etc.

2)Offline input devices/Source entry devices:-Offline input devices are those devices which are not directly connected to computer example scanning device.

Types of common input devices:-

1)Keyboard:-Keyboard is a well known input device which contains alphabets,numeric/digits,special keys,function keys etc.Keyboard can be of serial or parallel.




Alphabets:-A to Z,a to z.

Numeric key:-0 to 9

Special keys:-shift,spacebar,ctr,alt etc.

Functions key:-F1,F2.....F12.

Keyboard is used to convert these above mention keys into digital form of computer.

2)Mouse:-Mouse is an input device which is also called a pointing device.It is used to move the cursor on the screen.Mouse works in GUI(Graphical User Interface) mode.Mouse are of different-2 types in which some are physical mouse,optical mouse,cordless mouse.




3)Joystick:-It is also called as game controller device.Joystick is a remote control device which is used in gaming purpose.We will also play game with keyboard but joystick gives more simplicity and more speed than keyboard.

4)Scanner:-Scanner is a example of input device which are mainly used to check OMR sheets.It is also used to copy text,images in the form of soft copy.




5)Bar Code Reader(BCR):-Bar Code Reader is generally used in shopping malls,BCR read the bar code and display the rate of item on the computer screen.It is also used to recognised courier products.BCR takes input in the form of code and convert this bar code into computer language(0 or 1).




Some other input devices are Light pen,track ball,MICR,web camera,touch screen,microphones etc.


If you have any query then leave your comments and don't forgot to follow me on Google+,Facebook,Twitter.

Sunday, 5 May 2013

Read Only Memory(ROM)


ROM stands for Read Only Memory.As a name suggest this memory is only read the data or instructions but not write it.In simple words only the read operation take place in ROM(NO write Operation).

Read Only Memory is the non-volatile memory,but RAM is volatile memory.Non-volatile means when power off or electricity gone accidentally than all unsaved data will not be lost.So ROM holds the data permanently.

ROM is mainly used in BIOS(Basic Input Output System) in a computer or stored system software.

Types of Read Only Memory(ROM):-

1)PROM:-PROM stands for Programmable ROM or Programmable Read Only Memory.It is used to store program in a computer but it can write program only once.

2)EPROM:-Erasable Programmable ROM or Programmable Read Only Memory.It can store computer program and also erase it.It can written program many time using U-V rays(Ultra Violet rays).

3)EEPROM:-Electrical Erasable Programmable ROM or Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory.It can used to store the program and erase the small parts of the program.

4)EAPROM:-Electrical Alterable Programmable ROM or Electrical Alterable Programmable Read Only Memory.It is used to store program like addition,subtraction,division etc.


If you have any query then leave your comments and don't forgot to follow me on Google+,Facebook,Twitter.

Cache Memory in CPU


Cache memory are those memory which are used to increase up the speed of computer processing or in simple words cache memory are the special type of memory which are used to increase the speed of computer system.

Cache memory used the special technique to increase the speed of computer.

Types/levels of cache memory:-

1)L1 cache:-It is also called as primary cache or main cache.L1 is very small in size but very fast.

2)L2 cache:-It is also called as secondary cache.It is faster and somehow large.

Working of Cache Memory:-




1)Cache instructions fetch from current address.

2)CPU checks their is any need of cache instructions.

3)If yes,then instructions is fetched from cache at very high speed.

4)If not,then CPU fetch instructions from internal memory at very low speed.

Cache size is very small(around in size 256 kb or 512 Kb).Cache is the Random Access Memory that can quickly transfer the instructions.It is the specialised memory which is used by CPU to speed up the access of RAM.


If you have any query then leave your comments and don't forgot to follow me on Google+,Facebook,Twitter.

Saturday, 4 May 2013

Random Access Memory(RAM)


Random Access Memory is the primary/main memory of computer system.RAM can read as well as write the data.It is a volatile memory(When power off or electricity gone accidentally than all unsaved data will lost).So RAM holds the data temporarily.

Some size of RAM are 4 MB,8 MB,16MB,32MB,64MB
,128 MB.....so on.

Types of Random Access Memory(RAM):-

1)S RAM
2)DRAM

1)SRAM:-S RAM stands for Static RAM or Static Random Access Memory.S RAM are those RAM which are not need to be refresh.S RAM is very fast and its access speed is 70-90 nanosecond but S RAM is very costly.

2)DRAM:-D RAM stands for Dynamic RAM or Dynamic Random Access Memory.D RAM are those RAM which are need to be refresh in a short period of time.It is slow as compared to S RAM and its access speed is 18000-22000 nanosecond.It is very cheap and consumed less power than S RAM.



If you have any query then leave your comments and don't forgot to follow me on Google+,Facebook,Twitter.

Secondary memory of Computer System


Secondary memory are those memory which are not directly connected to motherboard of computer system means they are connected from outside the computer.It is also called Auxiliary memory or auxiliary storage.

Features of Secondary Memory:-

1)It is very cheap as compared to Primary memory.

2)It stored large amount of data.

3)It is connected from outside.

Why we use Secondary Memory?

Due to because,in primary memory we have very Small area to stored our data and primary memory is also expensive too.So we use secondary memory as a supplement of primary memory.

Types of Secondary Memory and its devices:-

1)Flash Drive/USB/Pen drive:-Pen drive are of very small size and store large amount of data.


2)CD-ROM:-It stands for Compact Disk Read Only Memory.It is the optical disk which is used to optically store the data.


3)Floppy Disk:-IBM introduce floppy disk in 1970.It is used to store small amount of data.Floppy disk are of 2 types:-

1)Mini Floppy
2)Micro Floppy

4)Hard disk:-It is also called as magnetic disk.Hard disk is the set of disk platters and it stores large amount of data.

5)DVD:-It stands for Digital Video Disk or Digital Versatile Disk.It is the extended version of CD and it store large amount of data as compared to CD.


If you have any query then leave your comments and don't forgot to follow me on Google+,Facebook,Twitter.

Primary memory of computer system


Primary memory of computer are those memory which are directly connected to the motherboard of CPU.Primary memory also called as the main memory of computer or Internal memory of computer.

Primary memory use different-2 spaces for storing the data.So which kind of data hold by primary memory?.


1)It holds all prepossessing data.


2)It holds all instruction before processing.


3)It hold big program like Operating system.


Table of Memory size(From Bit to Tetra byte):-


1 Bit o or 1
1 Byte group of 8 Bits
1 Kilobyte 1024 Byte
1 Megabyte 1024 Kilobyte
1 Gigabyte 1024 Megabyte
1 Tetra byte 1024 Gigabyte

Type of Primary Memory:-

Mainly primary memory is divided into two parts namely RAM and ROM but apart from these primary memory be semiconductor memory,bubble memory etc.

1)RAM(Random Access Memory):-RAM is used to hold data and instruction(temporarily).It is volatile memory.For more help please visits RAM(Full Article).

2)ROM(Read Only Memory):-ROM is used to store the data and instructions(permanently).It is non-volatile memory.For more help please visits ROM(Full Article).


That's all about primary memory and its characteristics,if you have any query then leave your comments and don't forgot to follow me on Google+,Facebook,Twitter.

Friday, 3 May 2013

Control Unit in CPU


Another important component/functional part of CPU is Control unit.CU control all devices which are used in computer system whether it are input devices(like mouse,keyboard etc.),output devices(like printer,plotter etc.) etc.It also control the flow of data from one machine to another machine.

In simple words all supervises task/functions are perform by control unit.Some another important task are:-


Fetch Phase:-In Fetch phase,SC=0,AR<--Pc,IR<--M[AR] then PC<--PC+1.

Decode Phase:-In decode phase  we decode operation code and perform AR<--IR and I<--IR operations.

Decision Phase:-In decision phase we decide where the instruction goes.

Execute Phase:-In this phase we execute instructions.


That's all about Control Unit in CPU and its programs,if you have any query then leave your comments and don't forgot to follow me on Google+,Facebook,Twitter.


Arithmetic Logic Unit(ALU) in CPU


ALU stands for Arithmetic Logical Unit which is one of the most important functional component of CPU(Central Processing Unit).ALU is made up of circuit,registers etc.ALU perform all arithmetic operation as well as all logical operations.Arithmetic operations/functions like +(Addition),-(Subtraction),*(Multiplication),%(Division) etc. and logical operations like >(greater than),<(less than),>=(greater than equal to),<=(less than equal to) etc. Apart from these Arithmetic Logical Unit also performs Boolean functions like AND,OR,NOT.


Arithmetic  Logical  Boolean
+<,> AND
- = OR
% >=,<= NOT
* <!,>!     -


The speed or we can say the performance of ALU components are very fast,it can perform task in very short duration of time.

Arithmetic Logical Unit contains circuit that perform arithmetic and logical operations.


If you have any query then leave your comments and don't forgot to follow me on Google+,Facebook,Twitter.

Central Processing Unit(CPU)


Central Processing Unit(CPU) is one of the most important part/component of computer.CPU is also called as the brain or heart or Mastermind of computer system.Central Processing Unit follows the instructions of the computer(which is given by us) and perform the specific task.


Parts of CPU are also mention in above figure(picture).


CPU is divided into three types(Component of CPU):-

1)Arithmetic Logical Unit:-Arithmetic Logical Unit or ALU is the main part of CPU.It perform all arithmetic operation/functions like +(Addition)- (Subtraction),Division(%),Multiplication(*) etc.

It also perform all Logical operations like >,<,>= etc.

For more help please visits ALU(Full Article).

2)Control Unit:-Control Unit or CU is another important functional part of CPU.It control all the devices which are used in computer system like input,output devices etc.

For more help please visits Control Unit(Full Article).

3)Memory Unit:-Memory unit contains the concept of primary memory,secondary memory and the register.

It store the data and instruction which are given by user's.


If you have any query then leave your comments and don't forgot to follow me on Google+,Facebook,Twitter.